Annotation Scheme and Gold Standard for Dutch Subjective Adjectives

Many techniques are developed to derive automatically lexical resources for opinion mining. In this paper we present a gold standard for Dutch adjectives developed for the evaluation of these techniques. In the first part of the paper we introduce our annotation guidelines. They are based upon guidelines recently developed for English which annotate subjectivity and polarity at word sense level. In addition to subjectivity and polarity we propose a third annotation category: that of the attitude holder. The identity of the attitude holder is partly implied by the word itself and may provide useful information for opinion mining systems. In the second part of paper we present the criteria adopted for the selection of items which should be included in this gold standard. Our design is aimed at an equal representation of all dimensions of the lexicon , like frequency and polysemy, in order to create a gold standard which can be used not only for benchmarking purposes but also may help to improve in a systematic way, the methods which derive the word lists. Finally we present the results of the annotation task including annotator agreement rates and disagreement analysis
Published in 2010